The production of forages as silage is a compromise between reducing the loss of field and fermentation. Efficient fermentation provides a tasteful, more digestible food that facilitates the optimum consumption of dry matter and enhances the efficiency of the product. The key management factors under the producer’s influence are:
1. The maturity stage of the drilling during harvest.
2. Form of fermentation in the bunker or silo.
3. Harvest method, storage sort, silo management and feeding process.
Information such as harvest speed, humidity content, shovel length, production of silage and compaction can improve the process of fermentation and reduce the losses of storage.
There Are Six Phases In The Process of Making The Silage
At the time of extraction, aerobic microorganisms are found on the drilling surface. Aerobic ventilation starts at harvest and continues after the drill is stacked and filled with the recently-cut plant material and aerobic bacteria. The oxygen found inside and between drilled particles produces the desired anaerobic conditions is absorbed by aerobic breathing. The soluble carbohydrates required by positive lactic acid bacteria and rumen microbes are also consumed by aerobic air.
Step 1 finishes with the consumption of all oxygen. Phase 1 takes just a few hours under optimal conditions, which can last several weeks under unsuitable management and result in substantial decreases in feed quality.
The breathing cycle allows the corn silage mass to generate water and heat. Excess heat accumulation in phase 1 will dramatically reduce protein digestibility. During step 1, plant enzymes break up proteins. Proteins are reduced in the first place to amino acids, then to amines and eventually ammonia. During this process, up to half of all plant proteins can be separated. The activity of those enzymes decreases as the silage becomes more acidic.
Effective silage technology minimizes the amount of time needed for aerobics to enter the soil. Cultivation option, soluble carbohydrate content, maturity of crops, humidity content, chop duration, filling rate and packaging rate and appropriate storage structure screening factors are the main management factors.
Phase 2 starts with the development of anaerobic bacteria. The bacteria ferment into acetic acid soluble carbohydrates. It is beneficial to manufacture acetic acid because it decreases the pH of the following fermentation cycles. In addition, rumen microbes may use acetic acid as a source of fuel. Phase 2 does not typically last for 24-72 hours , resulting in 5.0 falls in the pH of the assorted mass to kill the bacteria that create acetic acid.
This is a period of transformation where low pH favors growth of a community of anaerobic bacteria, which generate lactic acid and substitute acetic acid production.
Lactic acid predominates in this step. PHASE 4. Lactic acid is the fermentation compound most desirable. Lactic acid can contain up to 60 % of the total organic silage acids in the well-preserved silage and up to 6% lactic acid on a dry matter basis. Cattle may use lactic acid as a source of energy.
Phase 4 is the longest stage of the ensiling cycle before the pH of the drill is small enough to inhibit all of the bacteria ‘s growth. The pH is exceeded, so long as the oxygen is not supplied, in a stable state.
The pH end of the ensiled drilled drilling primarily depends on the method of drilling and the moisture content of this drilling. PHASE 5 The final pH of Haylage will be around 4.5 and the maize silage around 4.0. Generally, dryer silage has a stable pH greater than wet silage. The pH alone does not provide a good indicator of the silage quality or fermentation form.
Drillings ensiled at humidity levels greater than 70 per cent may be exposed to a different phase 4 variant, with unwanted Clostridia proliferating bacteria instead of lactic acid. Clostridium bacteria produce butyric acid, which results in sour silage, rather than lactic acid. The pH will stabilize at or above 5.0 with this kind of fermentation.
This process applies to the silage fed from the system of storage. This step is critical because of secondary aerobic decomposition of up to 50% of the silage-dry matter loss. Phase 6 occurs on any surface of the silage which, during storage and the feed bunk, is exposed to oxygen. Aerobic silage degradation can lead to severe losses in high yeast and mold populations. Proper management is necessary to reduce these losses and improve the silage bunk life.